In Could 2023, Kazakhstan’s share of the worldwide Bitcoin mining hashrate stood at 4%, down from its peak of 18% in October 2021. Kazakhstan’s mining trade boomed between 2020 and 2021, pushed by low-cost electrical energy, internet hosting demand, entry to low-cost Chinese language machines, relaxed laws, and tax advantages, in response to a Hashrate Index report.
With the rise in hashrate share, Kazakhstan’s complete Bitcoin mining load jumped to 1.5 GW in October 2021 from 200 MW a 12 months and a half in the past. Unable to deal with the load, the nation’s vitality supplier began rationing energy provide to Bitcoin miners in September 2021. So miners may solely use costly electrical energy imported from Russia, inflicting many miners to go bankrupt, the report famous.
The nation carried out the brand new legislation “On Digital Belongings within the Republic of Kazakhstan” on April 1. The legislation requires miners to acquire licenses to function and use solely licensed mining swimming pools and crypto exchanges. It additionally places miners final in line for energy provide and launched a mining-related electrical energy tax.
Understanding the impression of the brand new laws
Firstly, the brand new legislation requires all mining swimming pools to be licensed and report their earnings to the Kazakhstan authorities for taxation. The miners and crypto exchanges should be registered within the Astana Worldwide Monetary Centre (AIFC), as per the brand new laws.
Secondly, miners are required to promote a part of their Bitcoin holdings on domestically licensed exchanges — there are at the moment seven exchanges miners can select from, together with Binance. At the moment, miners must promote 25% of the Bitcoin domestically whereas by 2024, they’ll be required to promote half. The requirement will go as much as 75% by 2025.
Thirdly, as per the brand new legislation, miners can solely purchase energy via the nationwide electrical energy public sale system KOREM, which could have a separate miner-focused buying and selling platform. Principally, the nationwide grid operator will decide how a lot electrical energy is “extra” and put it up for public sale and miners should win the public sale to purchase energy. The quantity of energy that will probably be out there for public sale won’t be adequate for all Kazakhstan miners, who should look in the direction of different sources of energy technology.
Fourthly, if miners purchase energy via the public sale system or import it from Russia, they should pay a tax, which units the ground worth of electrical energy at $0.055 per kWh. It is a considerably excessive fee, which implies miners can not depend on buying energy in the long run. The brand new legislation additionally applies a flat tax of $0.022 per kWh on electrical energy from renewable sources.
The longer term is foggy
In line with the report, the brand new legislation may both present regulatory stability or its stringent taxation may kill the trade. However it stays to be seen how the legislation will actually impression the miners, which makes the longer term unsure.
Within the meantime, Kazakhstan miners must hunt for brand new sources of electrical energy, with fuel, wind, and photo voltaic holding essentially the most potential, as per the report.
Moreover, the instability over the previous 12 months has made overseas traders averse to investments in Kazakhstan, which has decreased the short-term potential of the trade. Nevertheless, the report famous that the nation’s mining trade holds long-term potential.